Author: vrod

GDPR – General Data Protection Regulation

General Data Protection regulations (GDPR)

GDPR is a regulation that requires businesses to protect the personal data and privacy of EU citizens for transactions that occur within EU member states. And non-compliance could cost either 20 million Euros or 4% of that company (in violation) global revenue.

Companies that collect data on citizens in European Union (EU) countries will need to comply with strict new rules around protecting customer data by May 25. The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is expected to set a new standard for consumer rights regarding their data.

What is the GDPR?

The European Parliament adopted the GDPR in April 2016, replacing an outdated data protection directive from 1995. It carries provisions that require businesses to protect the personal data and privacy of EU citizens for transactions that occur within EU member states. The GDPR also regulates the exportation of personal data outside the EU.

Europe in general has long had more stringent rules around how companies use the personal data of its citizens. The GDPR replaces the EU’s Data Protection Directive, which went into effect in 1995. 

The provisions are consistent across all 28 EU member states, which means that companies have just one standard to meet within the EU. 

What types of privacy data does the GDPR protect?

  • Basic identity information such as name, address and ID numbers
  • Web data such as location, IP address, cookie data and RFID tags
  • Health and genetic data
  • Biometric data
  • Racial or ethnic data
  • Political opinions
  • Sexual orientation

Which companies does the GDPR affect?

Any company that stores or processes personal information about EU citizens within EU states must comply with the GDPR, even if they do not have a business presence within the EU. Specific criteria for companies required to comply are:

  • A presence in an EU country.
  • No presence in the EU, but it processes personal data of European residents.
  • More than 250 employees.
  • Fewer than 250 employees but its data-processing impacts the rights and freedoms of data subjects, is not occasional, or includes certain types of sensitive personal data.

When does my company need to be in compliance?

Companies must be able to show compliance by May 25, 2018.

Who within my company will be responsible for compliance?

The GDPR defines several roles that are responsible for ensuring compliance: data controller, data processor and the data protection officer (DPO). The data controller defines how personal data is processed and the purposes for which it is processed. The controller is also responsible for making sure that outside contractors comply.

How does the GDPR affect third-party and customer contracts?

The GDPR places equal liability on data controllers (the organization that owns the data) and data processors (outside organizations that help manage that data). A third-party processor not in compliance means your organization is not in compliance. The new regulation also has strict rules for reporting breaches that everyone in the chain must be able to comply with. Organizations must also inform customers of their rights under GDPR.

Categories: Information Security

How To: Replace a failed Hard Drive in a Software RAID 1 Array

Replacing A Failed Hard Drive In A Software RAID1 Array. This guide shows how to remove a failed hard drive from a Linux RAID1 array (software RAID), and how to add a new hard disk to the RAID1 array without losing data.

In this example I have two hard drives, /dev/sda and /dev/sdb, with the partitions /dev/sda1 and /dev/sda2 as well as /dev/sdb1 and /dev/sdb2.

/dev/sda1 and /dev/sdb1 make up the RAID1 array /dev/md0.

/dev/sda2 and /dev/sdb2 make up the RAID1 array /dev/md1.

/dev/sda1 + /dev/sdb1 = /dev/md0

/dev/sda2 + /dev/sdb2 = /dev/md1

/dev/sdb has failed, and we want to replace it.

How Do I Tell If A Hard Disk Has Failed?

If a disk has failed, you will probably find a lot of error messages in the log files, e.g. /var/log/messages or /var/log/syslog.

You can also run

cat /proc/mdstat

and instead of the string [UU] you will see [U_] if you have a degraded RAID1 array.

Removing The Failed Disk

To remove /dev/sdb, we will mark /dev/sdb1 and /dev/sdb2 as failed and remove them from their respective RAID arrays (/dev/md0 and /dev/md1).

First we mark /dev/sdb1 as failed:

mdadm –manage /dev/md0 –fail /dev/sdb1

The output of

cat /proc/mdstat

should look like this:

server1:~# cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities : [linear] [multipath] [raid0] [raid1] [raid5] [raid4] [raid6] [raid10]
md0 : active raid1 sda1[0] sdb1[2](F)
24418688 blocks [2/1] [U_]

md1 : active raid1 sda2[0] sdb2[1]
24418688 blocks [2/2] [UU]

unused devices: <none>

Then we remove /dev/sdb1 from /dev/md0:

mdadm –manage /dev/md0 –remove /dev/sdb1

The output should be like this:

server1:~# mdadm –manage /dev/md0 –remove /dev/sdb1
mdadm: hot removed /dev/sdb1


cat /proc/mdstat

should show this:

server1:~# cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities : [linear] [multipath] [raid0] [raid1] [raid5] [raid4] [raid6] [raid10]
md0 : active raid1 sda1[0]
24418688 blocks [2/1] [U_]

md1 : active raid1 sda2[0] sdb2[1]
24418688 blocks [2/2] [UU]

unused devices: <none>

Repeat  the same steps again for /dev/sdb2 (which is part of /dev/md1):

Adding The New Hard Disk

After you have changed the hard disk /dev/sdb, boot the system.

The first thing we must do now is to create the exact same partitioning as on /dev/sda. We can do this with one simple command:

sfdisk -d /dev/sda | sfdisk /dev/sdb

You can run

fdisk -l

to check if both hard drives have the same partitioning now.

Next we add /dev/sdb1 to /dev/md0 and /dev/sdb2 to /dev/md1:

server1:~# mdadm –manage /dev/md0 –add /dev/sdb1
mdadm: re-added /dev/sdb1

server1:~# mdadm –manage /dev/md1 –add /dev/sdb2
mdadm: re-added /dev/sdb2

Now both arays (/dev/md0 and /dev/md1) will be synchronized. Run

cat /proc/mdstat

to see when it’s finished.

During the synchronization the output will look like this:

server1:~# cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities : [linear] [multipath] [raid0] [raid1] [raid5] [raid4] [raid6] [raid10]
md0 : active raid1 sda1[0] sdb1[1]
24418688 blocks [2/1] [U_]
[=>……………….]  recovery =  9.9% (2423168/24418688) finish=2.8min speed=127535K/sec

md1 : active raid1 sda2[0] sdb2[1]
24418688 blocks [2/1] [U_]
[=>……………….]  recovery =  6.4% (1572096/24418688) finish=1.9min speed=196512K/sec

unused devices: <none>

Categories: Linux

How to Install Fastboot, ADB and Google USB Drivers on Windows 10

Step 1 – Download and latest Java SDK from the following link: Java SE Development Kit 8 Downloads. Proceed to next step after finishing installation.

Step 2 – Download ADB and Fastboot Installer v1.4.3. The tool is a single “.EXE” application.

Step 3 – Run the “adb-setup-1.4.3.exe” which you downloaded in the preceding step, “Run as Administrator”.

Do you want to install ADB and Fastboot? <Y/N> – Type Y

Install ADB system-wide? <Y/N> – Type Y

4 Files copied.

SUCCESS: Specified value was saved.

Do you want to install device drivers? <Y/N> – Type Y

Once you press enter, the program will automatically detect whether you have a 64-Bit or 32-Bit installation of Windows and launch the driver setup respectively.

Device installation wizard will pop up, then click “Next” in the installation wizard

Click on “Install” when asked by Windows Security.

That’s All Folks! You can now utilize ADB and Fastboot utilities by simply opening up a command window and then executing the desired commands.

Now to test it,

  1. make your phone reboot to bootloader
  2. when your phone is on fastboot mode (screen display “fastboot”)
  3. connect your phone to your computer using USB
  4. Open a command window
  5. Type fastboot devices
  6. If all works then #5 will output the device ID

usage: fastboot [ <option> ] <command>

update <filename> reflash device from
flashall flash boot, system, vendor and if found,
flash <partition> [ <filename> ] write a file to a flash partition
flashing lock locks the device. Prevents flashing partitions
flashing unlock unlocks the device. Allows user to flash any partition except the ones that are related to bootloader
flashing lock_critical Prevents flashing bootloader related partitions
flashing unlock_critical Enables flashing bootloader related partitions
flashing get_unlock_ability Queries bootloader to see if the device is unlocked
erase <partition> erase a flash partition
format[:[<fs type>][:[<size>]] <partition> format a flash partition.
Can override the fs type and/or
size the bootloader reports.
getvar <variable> display a bootloader variable
boot <kernel> [ <ramdisk> ] download and boot kernel
flash:raw boot <kernel> [ <ramdisk> ] create bootimage and flash it
devices list all connected devices
continue continue with autoboot
reboot [bootloader] reboot device, optionally into bootloader
reboot-bootloader reboot device into bootloader
help show this help message

-w erase userdata and cache (and format
if supported by partition type)
-u do not first erase partition before
-s <specific device> specify device serial number
or path to device port
-l with “devices”, lists device paths
-p <product> specify product name
-c <cmdline> override kernel commandline
-i <vendor id> specify a custom USB vendor id
-b <base_addr> specify a custom kernel base address.
default: 0x10000000
-n <page size> specify the nand page size.
default: 2048
-S <size>[K|M|G] automatically sparse files greater
than size. 0 to disable

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